The generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy-carrying molecule, found in the cells is based in mitochondria. ATP captures chemical energy obtained from food molecules and is used to fuel other cellular processes. The conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to (NADH) is essential step for mitochondrial synthesis of intracellular ATP –intracellular fuel. Intracellular energy metabolism is centered around molecule of NAD+ and its diminishing level with age is well-known.

Most of the active substances with proven positive effect on longevity are involved in maintaining efficient intracellular metabolism. Numerous studies have demonstrated that NAD+ levels decrease with age, including human study that reports reduced levels in the brain.

References on click

Zhu XH, Lu M, Lee BY, Ugurbil K, Chen W. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 3; 112(9): 2876-81.

Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJ, Moslehi JJ, Montgomery MK, Rajman L, White JP, Teodoro JS, Wrann CD, Hubbard BP, Mercken EM, Palmeira CM, de Cabo R, Rolo AP, Turner N, Bell EL, Sinclair DA. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell. 2013 Dec 19;155(7):1624-38.

Verdin E. NAD⁺ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1208-13

Mitocholine, being a specifically designed composition of Nicotinamide and succinate in bioavailable form of choline salt (DISU), provides unique synergistic effect in support of a metabolically active brain throughout life and above all during ageing.

  • Nicotinamide, being NAD+ precursor, ameliorates age-related NAD+ deficiency
  • DISU provides both short- and long-term improvement of energy metabolism due to sensitization of the brain insulin receptors, which are involved in a wide range of normal brain functions, such as reward, motivation, cognition, attention, and memory formation.


MITOCHOLINE – maintaining brain health

through nutrition