Mitocholine is our breakthrough solution for sustaining the brain and supporting cognitive performance.

MitocholineTM is a novel food ingredient. Food fortification is one of the greatest success stories in the history of public health. In the same way that fluoridation of water revolutionized human dental health, we aspire for MitocholineTM to revolutionise our daily diet to support our cognitive and metabolic health.

MitocholineTM is a novel composition of a fixed ratio of three essential human metabolites: Choline, Succinate and Nicotinamide, which, when taken orally, become available to the brain cells.

MitocholineTM is our breakthrough solution for fuelling the brain and supporting cognitive performance. MitocholineTM addresses the high energy needs of the brain, because it has a synergistic effect on both ATP and NADH generation in brain cells and elevates level of Phosphocreatine (pCr) in the brain.

 

MitocholineTM enhances brain energy store for optimal health and functioning.

Although MitocholineTM represents a completely unique, patented and novel combination of the above bioactive ingredients there is a long history of human exposure to its key components.

 

Choline

Humans can produce small amounts of choline, however, most individuals must consume this nutrient through the diet to supplement the endogenously produced amount to prevent deficiency. In the body choline is a component of the key brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as other brain and nervous tissues. Choline is also a dietary element that is vital for the structural integrity of cell membranes, transmembrane signalling, lipid and cholesterol transport, methyl metabolism. Choline availability modulates brain development in the foetus and infant, and in the adult is important for normal liver and muscle function (1). Loss of cholinergic neurones is associated with impaired cognitive function, memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease (2).

In the EU there are three authorised health claims for choline.

Choline contributes to normal homocysteine metabolism. (3)
Choline contributes to normal lipid metabolism. (3)
Choline contributes to the maintenance of normal liver function. (3)

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According to US consumption data from 2007-2010, 92% of the US population failed to achieve daily recommended adequate intake AI of choline (4, 5). Other source based on the NANDES datasets showed that only around 11% of American adults achieve the AI for choline. On May 20, 2016 the FDA issued the long -awaited food nutrition labelling Final Rule in relation to choline. In it the FDA has established a reference Dietary intake of 550mg of Choline for Foods and supplement products that include the nutrient. Choline was and is overlooked in the UK and there are research publications highlighting the need for choline to be included in the list of UK essential ingredients: Could we be overlooking a potential choline crisis in the United Kingdom?

The European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) has set an AI of from 140 mg/day to 520 mg/day depending on population group (6).

Human clinical trials demonstrated link between dietary choline intake and cognitive function.

References:

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31385730
2.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25290336
3.
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32012R0432
4.
https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-consumption-and-nutrient-intakes
5.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886842
6.
https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4484

Succinate

Succinate is formed endogenously as a component of the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. The Scientific Committee on Foods (SCF) concluded for succinic acid in 1990.

“The anion occurs in nature and plays a role as an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle”.

 

Succinic acid is therefore present in almost all plant and animal tissues. Succinic acid is approved for use in foods as a flavour enhancer and pH control agent (1).

In the US, succinic acid is permitted for addition to food as an ingredient Generally Recognised as Safe (GRAS) (2).
Succinate is substrate for the cellular energy making machinery in mitochondria as well as a signalling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state (3).

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In 2007 the mechanism of the mitochondrial control of insulin receptor activation in the brain has been discovered. It was demonstrated that mitochondrial substrate -succinate facilitates neuronal insulin receptor activation. Succinate in the form of highly bioavailable salt of choline promotes and potentiates intracerebral insulin functions in the brain. These functions include effects on concentration, memory and mood and are mediated through activation of neuronal isoform of the insulin receptor (4, 5, 6). Succinate was also identified as specific substrate that supports the TCA cycle and ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation in stressed cells when mitochondrial function is impaired (7).

References:

1. http://www.foodchemadditives.com/applications-uses/1627
2. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov
3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26971832
4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18215309
5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23730255
6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24094269
7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20566649

Nicotinamide

Nicotinamide (NAM) is a soluble organic compound belonging to the group of B vitamins. Along with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide is often referred to by the generic name niacin which is found in a wide range of foods. In the EU there are six authorised health claims for niacin:

Niacin contributes to normal psychological function (1).

Niacin contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism (1).

Niacin contributes to normal functioning of the nervous system (1)

Niacin contributes to the maintenance of normal mucous membranes (1).

Niacin contributes to the maintenance of normal skin (1).

Niacin contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue (1).

1. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32012R0432

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Nicotinamide (NAM), also known as niacinamide and niacin is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as medication and supplement (2, 3).
The main sources of niacin include liver, meat (or meat products), fish, peanuts and whole grains. Foods rich in protein, such as milk, cheese, and eggs, which are good sources of the amino acid tryptophan, are therefore good sources of niacin equivalents (NEs). Niacin can be synthesized in the human body from the amino acid tryptophan. However, this synthesis is dependent on the levels of other vitamins and minerals in the body and low levels of iron, riboflavin or vitamin B6 decrease the conversion of tryptophan to niacin (4).

Nicotinamide is an essential precursor to the NAD+ coenzyme used for turning nutrients into energy. NAD+ transfers electrons in redox reactions to help synthesize ATP, the energy currency of the cell. NAD+ molecule is critical in regulating cellular aging and is a substrate for mitochondria. NAD+ is the most researched and cited molecule in anti-ageing research at present. NAD+ decreases over time and in metabolic stress. Increase in NAD+ maintains healthy mitochondria, promotes cellular repair and maintains steady healthy levels of energy production and cellular metabolism (5, 6).

Recently NAD+ has been proven as an important signalling molecule required for th activity of sirtuins (SIRTs), PARPS polymerases and cyclic ADP-ribose synthases. NAD+ continious turnover is tightly linked to metabolic homeostasis (7).

Every pair of electrons donated by the NADH in the electron transport chain form 2.5 ATP molecules. It is approximately 80 kg of ATP turned over processed by a male adult each day, it is predicted as much as 30 kg NADH is generated every day in the human body. In mammalian cells there are few different pathways have been established from Nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide riboside. NAM and and NR contain an amine group and follow an amidated route to NAD+ (8, 9).

History:

Modern anti-aging research is aimed at defining the key pathways to sustain high NAD+ turnover. The notion of using NAD+ precursors to boost NAD+ is now beginning to be translated into human studies, NAD+ precursors are being safe and naturally available and having potential to improve human health and longevity.

 

MitocholineTM - maintaining brain health through nutrition