The proprietary protection is based on the very recent discovery that the components of MitocholineTM (metabolites naturally occurring in the human body) work in synergy to fill, enhance and maintain energy reserves in the brain. MitocholineTM is unique as it delivers essential substrates to mitochondria whilst simultaneously increasing the receptiveness of the brain to insulin, a major metabolic regulator.
Although MitocholineTM represents a completely unique combination of the above bioactive ingredients, there is a long history of human exposure to its components. All three compounds -Nicotinamide, succinic acid and choline are already widely approved for use in foods.
The novel effect of MitocholineTM has been substantiated by MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) measurements of energy reserves in the human brain, informal clinical trials and experimental measurements of energy levels ATP and NAD+ generated in single brain cells. We offer proprietary product for prevention and dietary management of symptoms and conditions associated with unbalanced or age-related slowed brain metabolism due to stress, disease and because of aging.
Patent: WO2019002858 – COMPOSITION
Patent: WO2019002858 - COMPOSITION
The phenomenon of brain insulin resistance is characterized by both metabolic and cognitive dysfunction. Brain insulin resistance is linked with impaired metabolism and impaired cognition and mood. In 2007 the mechanism of insulin receptor activation in the brain has been discovered. It was demonstrated that mitochondrial substrate – succinate facilitates neuronal insulin receptor activation. Succinate promotes insulin function in the brain.
Pomytkin IA. H2O2 Signalling Pathway: A Possible Bridge between Insulin Receptor and Mitochondria. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2012 Dec;10(4):311-20.
Persiyantseva NA, Storozhevykh TP, Senilova YE, Gorbacheva LR, Pinelis VG, Pomytkin IA. Mitochondrial H2O2 as an enable signal for triggering autophosphorylation of insulin receptor in neurons. J Mol Signal. 2013 Oct 5;8(1):11.
The generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy-carrying molecule, found in the cells is based in mitochondria. ATP captures chemical energy obtained from food molecules and is used to fuel other cellular processes. The conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to (NADH) is an essential step for mitochondrial synthesis of intracellular ATP –intracellular fuel.
Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that NAD+ levels decrease with age, including studies that report reduced levels in the brain. (1, 2, 3).
MitocholineTM is a novel chemical composition which for the first time targets insulin resistance simultaneously with the support of the energy generating machinery (mitochondria) in the brain cells.
1. Zhu XH, Lu M, Lee BY, Ugurbil K, Chen W. In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 3; 112(9): 2876-81.
2. Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJ, Moslehi JJ, Montgomery MK, Rajman L, White JP, Teodoro JS, Wrann CD, Hubbard BP, Mercken EM, Palmeira CM, de Cabo R, Rolo AP, Turner N, Bell EL, Sinclair DA. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell. 2013 Dec 19;155(7):1624-38.
3. Verdin E. NAD⁺ in aging, metabolism, and neurodegeneration. Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1208-13
MitocholineTM components work in synergy providing sensitization of the insulin receptors and delivering essential nutrients to mitochondria.
Nicotinamide is NAD+ precursor and succinate in unique highly bioavailable form provides both short- and long-term improvement of energy metabolism due to sensitization of the brain insulin receptors, which are involved in a wide range of normal brain functions, such as reward, motivation, cognition, attention, and memory formation.
MitocholineTM - maintaining brain health through nutrition